Dating htlv

Blood samples (5 m L; obtained by venipuncture) were transferred to the Institut Pasteur de Nouvelle-Calédonie, where plasma and buffy coats were isolated, frozen, and stored (at -80°C) until HTLV screening.

All plasma samples were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by a particle agglutination (PA) technique (Serodia; Fujirebio) and by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using the HTLV1- and HTLV-2-transformed human T cell lines MT2 and C19, respectively [30].

dating htlv-8dating htlv-36

The data given in the figure indicate, for each geographical area, the no.

of individuals tested, the sex and mean age of the studied population, and the no.

The mothers of children were questioned about the duration of breast-feeding.

Concerning the intrafamilial transmission study, the name, age, and sex of the relatives (spouse or husband as well as children, brothers, and/or sisters) of the index case patients were required, and information on familial relationships was obtained on the basis of interviews.

The major endemic foci include southwestern Japan, the Caribbean basin, several regions of South America, intertropical Africa, and parts of the Middle East and Melanesia [10, 11].

The origin for this puzzling geographic/ethnic repartition is not well understood but is probably linked to a founder effect in certain groups followed by persistence of a high viral transmission due to favorable local environmental and cultural situations.

A geographic heterogeneity of HTLV-1 seroprevalence was observed among the islands.

All 41 of the new The Vanuatu archipelago is endemic for HTLV-1 with a diversity of subtype C variants.

However, this study was performed in only a small series of women, all originating from the remote and small island of Ambae.

The main purposes of the present cross-sectional study were (1) to assess the overall HTLV-1 seroprevalence in a large series of samples obtained from inhabitants representative of the 6 Vanuatu provinces, using stringent serological and molecular criteria; (2) to study the main epidemiological determinants (age, sex, geographic distribution, intrafamilial transmission, etc.) of HTLV-1-infected subjects; and (3) to characterize the genetic diversity of HTLV-1 strains to gain new insights into the origin and mode of dissemination of this retrovirus and of their human hosts in the general context of Melanesia.

of HTLV-1-seropositive samples (as confirmed by specific Western blot).

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