Mongol dating

Any slight bias in favour of the Shīʿites might be attributed to a desire to capture the emotions and imagination of many of the humble people who had reacted against the Seljuqs’ zeal for Sunnism and craved a teaching that included millennial overtones.

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Hülegü made Iran his base, but the Mamlūks of Egypt (1250–1517) prevented him and his successors from achieving their great imperial goal, by decisively defeating a Mongol army at ʿAyn Jālūt in 1260.

Instead, a Mongol dynasty, the Il-Khans, or “deputy khans” to the great khan in China, was established in Iran to attempt repair of the damage of the first Mongol invasion.

Genghis Khan’s first two missions to Khwārezm had been massacred; but the place of commercial motives in the Mongol’s decision to march to the west is indicated by the fact that the first was a trade mission.

The massacre and robbery of this mission at Utrār by one of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad’s governors before it reached the capital made Genghis single out Utrār for especially savage treatment when the murder of his second, purely diplomatic, mission left him no alternative but war. They had to witness one of the worst catastrophes of history.

Ghāzān’s work was carried on, but less successfully, by his successor Abū Saʿīd was unable to keep the Il-Khanid regime consolidated, and it fell apart on his death.

Ghāzān’s brilliant reign survives only in the pages of his historian, Rashīd al-Dīn.

An experiment with paper currency, modeled on the Chinese money, failed under Maḥmūd Ghāzān (1295–1304).

Ghāzān abandoned Buddhism—the faith in which his grandfather Abagha, Hülegü’s successor (1265–82), had reared him—and adopted Islam.

It took time for Iranian administrators to resume their normal role after the invasion and to restore some semblance of administrative order and stability.

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