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Many colorizing compounds work in different ways depending on whether the glass pot environment is oxidizing or reducing (Tooley 1953; Kendrick 1968; Toulouse 1969).However, discussing the simple addition of chemical additives makes any discussion of glass making and glass coloring too simplistic.Soda (sodium dioxide) - aka "alkali," "soda-ash," or "potash" in the trade (Trowbridge 1870; Toulouse 1969) - is added to the sand as a "flux" to lower the melting temperature of the silica.
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This is done by adding certain types of compounds to the glass batch in certain quantities.
Bottles made from glass with just the basic ingredients (sand, soda & lime) will usually be different shades of green because of the iron impurities in the sand, though other colors can also be attained depending on many factors.
Broken glass (aka "cullet") on hand from misblown, broken or returned bottles was also often added (Toulouse 1969).
From this point in the glass producing process, the final color of the glass is a matter of both controlling off-coloring impurities and achieving the desired color.
With higher amounts of iron or higher oxidation of the iron, darker greens will usually occur (Toulouse 1969a; Jones & Sullivan 1989)).
In order to create other colors, the iron needs to be variably neutralized and appropriate colorizing agents or compounds added to achieve the desired color.
There is a very broad chronology of popularity of various colours over time; however that chronology cannot be applied to individual glass objects with any significant level of meaning..."The majority of common bottle glass is "soda-lime glass" which is primarily composed of silica, soda (aka soda-ash) or potash, and lime - the latter two ingredients often referred to as the "alkalies" (Hunter 1950; Toulouse 1969; Munsey 1970).
The silica (silica dioxide) typically makes up 60-80 % of the glass composition and is primarily derived from sand.
In the following color descriptions, the different coloring (and de-coloring) agents or compounds for the different colors are briefly noted.
This is just informational because the actual chemistry is of little utility and glass colors only contribute a little to the process of dating or typing historic bottles.
Glass chemistry is a complex science that is beyond the goals of this website and will not be pursued here.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating