unus, q Uua, nu Uns, solus, totus, alter, uter, &c.. Old or exceptional forms of Cases (Class II ), - p.
But with these facts must be considered, in order that xlv their full force may be seen, the fact that there is no hint in any ancient writer whatever of c having more than one sound, since the eaiiy times mentioned in the last paragraph (Schneider, Lat. In 7 § 28 he is speaking expressly of what is written one way and pronounced another, and instances this very letter c as used to denote Ons Bus (cf. Chr.), referring to the fact that the names of the three letters c, Ic, q contained each a different vowel (ce, ka, qu ; comp.
Hoc eo non omisi, quod quidam eam, quotiens a sequatur, necessariam credunt, cum sit c littera quae ad omnes vocales vim suam proferat." * k should not in my opinion be used in any eword except in those for (which it can stand by itself as an abbreviation, I mention this because of the opinion of some persons that k must be used if the vo^wel a follo^uj it, though c is a letter the sound cf mjijich is heard before all vo^ivels,^ 3. xlix such a variety of sound could hardly help being noticed, if it had existed. 4, §§ 7 — 9) first refers to the discussion of the grammarians whether the Romans lacked some necessary letters, and then to the counter question whether some were superfluous, and speaks of k and 4. Terentianus Maurus (who is generally thought to have lived at end of 3rd century p. xxiii.), says expressly, as I understand him, that k and q are alike in sound and are both superfluous, because it matters not whether c, k, or q be used, whichever of the vowels follow (w.
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483 sqq., and it will be seen how persistently the Chromcon Pascbale of the 7 th century ^ Schleicher (Deutsche Sprincfie^ p. ») says: *l) and ff we * write in accordance with the old language, but pronounce these sounds, * when medial;, between vowels, as w and [voiced] di, consequently as jfl * spirants not as momentary sounds... graben, sa^en, as grdwen, ^.i Men...1h& I) in the combinations lb, rto Is pronounced as w; * e.g. But in classical Latin the change supposed is not justified, so far as I know, by any xlviii Preface: Observations on Book I. Changes of consonantal sounds are frequent, but they are rarely caused by any change of the subsequent vowel: and the change of sound is frequently shewn by a change of the spelling, e.g. kalendas, korano, dekembres ; and it was the regular abbreviation for the praenomen E»bo and for kal»u Ua (§ 103).
A reference to Benseler's lexicon will shew at once a number of words, written earlier with ov, which in Byzantine writers received a j8. given from various authorities side by side in the Corpus Inscrift, Latin, I. or did it wait until the diphthong ae gave place to the single vowel e (§ a6a)? 6, § 17) with audadter; dlfficulter and dlfficultas with difficile; capio, reclpio, cepl, captum, receptnm; cano, cedni; acer, acrls; locus, lod, loco, loctllus, locellus; laciis with its genitives lacl and lacus, and dat. lact Lbus and laclbus ; pl BCls, pl Bdcul UB, plscosus ; qverci Yetum with qvercotum ; prsoqvo- quifl contracted into pracoz, and prs»coz with its genitive pr»cocl8 ; &x with its old nom. I am aware that the substitution of a guttural for a palatal (dlc=:dlk, for dlce=dlclie) may be paralleled xllv from Sanskrit cu now pronounced^ but the change of sound is marked by a change of letter, and the palatal letters are not dependent for thdr sound on one vowel rather than another. was also in use, and is found in a few inscriptions, generally before a, but also before o, and (in one inscription regarded on this account by Mommsen as Graecising) before e; e.g.
For there is no apparent reason why a copyist, if he found j8 written, should have changed it to ov, while the chaqge of ov (for consonantal v) into /3 would be in accordance with the tendencies either of pronunciation itself or of its expression. Kaili UB became Callus: did the c change its sound when the diphthong ai was changed into the diphthong ae ? The passage of St into s is in Latin as frequent, as it is strange in * Greek.' i^Studien^ I, i, p. Greek and Latin) have a general and strong predilection.' ( Verg/, Cr. 243.) • Even in the later imperial times there seems little evidence of such a change.
As regards Plutarch it i^ perhaps not inappropriate to remark that he expressly tells us he was not a good Latin scholar (Fit. 846), ancf secondly, that he w*^s.a Boeotian; and the relations of the Boeotian dialect to the digamma were such as to make it pos- sible that his native pronunciation or habits may have had something to do with this peculiarity. of these authors are, I suppose, posterior by many centuries to the time of confusion of ▼ and 1); and this fact, while not at all impairing their testimony when they represent ▼ by ov, is .strong against its trjustworthiness when writing /3. Hosce is common, but is never abbreviated into hose : that is to say, c is frequently added when it would, if a sibilant, be indistinguishable, it is not added, when its pre- sence would have been audible I Can decem have been pronounced decbem or detsem or desem, and yet its derivative ordinal have been sounded delcnmus, and then, at the same time with that, dec Mznus, &c.? I only know at the most of one instance of its passing into * (r... The combination Bt is one of the com- monest in the language^; e.g. Now adgret UB and egretus are of course, if genuine, simply in- lix stances of the preservation of the starting-point common to all theories: come Btum is, I believe, the oijy instance of a perfectly ' Leo Meyer calls it *a combination for which our languages • (i.e.
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